Dinner should not be very abundant, but light and weakly alkalizing, with a prevalence of liquid and/or semi-liquid preparations and with reduced protein intake.
Therefore the typical dishes of the Italian gastronomic tradition are preferred, such as minestrone soups and creams of vegetables and legumes, mashed potatoes, followed by a digestible dish, for example oven-baked chicken or fish croquettes, or a boiled or soft-boiled egg, cooked vegetables and fresh fruit.
It is good practice to avoid, as far as possible, ingesting protein and starchy foods with the same dish or meal, due to the contrasting effects produced by these foods on gastric secretion, with consequent lengthening of digestion times.
It is not convenient to combine meat and milk, as well as eggs with milk and its derivatives.
It is not convenient to associate proteins and starches with acidic foods and drinks as the acidity of the latter slows down the digestion of both protein foods and starches.
Always useful advice is not to take in exaggerated quantities drinks or stimulating foods just before training: tea, coffee or chocolate, during physical effort, increase the oxygen consumption of the heart, increase the heart rate, increase the metabolism of the most of the body, in exchange for a small and transient feeling of well-being or a reduction in the sense of fatigue; at the end of the training, they can cause nervousness and insomnia.
Fruit consumed on an empty stomach is much more digestible.
- hydrate well before exercise (400 – 600 ml in the 2 previous hours)
- continue during the exercise (150-300 ml every 15-20 ‘)
- if the exercise is prolonged (> 90 ‘) resort to hypotonic “sports drinks” (carbohydrates, electrolytes)
Objective: to prevent dehydration and the deficiency of minerals lost through sweating
Sweat is an aqueous solution in which these minerals are mainly found: sodium, chlorine, magnesium, and potassium
Disturbances can occur both from the lack of water and from the lack of minerals
- Already a loss of liquids equal to 2% of body weight (1.5 kg for a man weighing 70 kg) reduces the body’s performance; it reaches 3% (2.1 kg) in those who are used to sweating a lot
- Cramps are related to the loss of electrolytes, especially sodium
The ideal drink during exercise
The drink passes through the stomach quickly if it contains a maximum of 5% carbohydrates. It is good that the drink contains chlorine, sodium, potassium, and magnesium
The drink must have a concentration equal (isotonic) or better (hypotonic) to that of the plasma (280-300 mOsm / l), in order to quickly pass from the intestine to the blood
We must be careful to understand the difference between all that is possible to ingest:
- Drugs took improperly
In times of high energy demand and in times when nutrition cannot be optimal, a multivitamin and multimineral product can form the basis of an effective food supplementation program.
We must be careful to always choose a product of safe origin: many cases of contaminated products have been described, for example, creatine cans (a compound that gives energy and that taken at normal dosages has always been allowed) with mixed (on purpose?) Small quantities anabolic steroids (hormones that develop muscles and have always been banned).
Before taking any substance, you must always carefully read all the components: today, the athlete is always considered responsible for everything he ingests or uses. One last recommendation: read the labels carefully, the supplement must be approved by the Ministry of Health. If there is no such indication, it is best to do some tests.